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There are 55 published clinical (human) studies on K2 according to a Pubmed search. Best to our knowledge, all of them are sponsored and published by academia bodies, not private companies. Some of our competitors provided technical assistance and free placebo and active samples in some of these studies (Collaborators). Please see the list of clinical trials with their sponsors and collaborators from this reliable source.

The results of these studies are copyrighted, however quoting small sections that are directly relevant to something one is writing about is acceptable under Fair Use, as long as one provides an appropriate citation. Summarizing and quoting from a medical article in a news article (Commentary, Criticism, “transformative”purpose) is considered a fair use according to this source.

All human clinical studies were designed and performed on Menaquinone-7 chemical compound which does not differ in terms of bioavailability or safety profile regardless if obtained through organic synthesis or biochemistry (industrial fermentation).
Vitamin K2 offered in the market differs only in terms of purity offered and presentation oil, powder, microcapsule).

We encourage all our clients to produce educational content based on the available study results and fair use policy. In case of advertising of a specific brand, use of third-party study results is prohibited.

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PubMed Link
Publication date
Vitamin K supplementation and bone mineral density in dialysis: results of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled RenaKvit trial.
Levy-Schousboe K, Marckmann P, Frimodt-Moller M, Peters CD, Kjaergaard KD, Jensen JD, Strandhave C, Sandstrom H, Hitz MF, Langdahl B, Vestergaard P, Brasen CL, Schmedes A, Madsen JS, Jorgensen NR, Frokjaer JB, Frandsen NE, Petersen I, Hansen D
Sep 2023
bone mineral density, chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease, menaquinone-7, mineral and bone disorder
Cardiovascular Health
Effect of Menaquinone-7 Supplementation on Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.
Naiyarakseree N, Phannajit J, Naiyarakseree W, Mahatanan N, Asavapujanamanee P, Lekhyananda S, Vanichakarn S, Avihingsanon Y, Praditpornsilpa K, Eiam-Ong S, Susantitaphong P
May 2023
arterial stiffness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, chronic hemodialysis, menaquinone-7
Clinical Trials
Effect of vitamin K supplementation on serum calcification propensity and arterial stiffness in vitamin K-deficient kidney transplant recipients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Eelderink C, Kremer D, Riphagen IJ, Knobbe TJ, Schurgers LJ, Pasch A, Mulder DJ, Corpeleijn E, Navis G, Bakker SJL, de Borst MH, Te Velde-Keyzer CA
Apr 2023
arterial stiffness, calcification propensity, cardiovascular disease, clinical research/practice, kidney transplantation, nephrology, nutrition, vascular biology, vascular health, vitamin K
Renal Health
Effect of vitamin K2 administration on depression status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.
Tarkesh F, Namavar Jahromi B, Hejazi N, Hoseini G
Jul 2022
Depression, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Vitamin K2
Vitamin K2 and D in Patients With Aortic Valve Calcification: A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial.
Diederichsen ACP, Lindholt JS, Moller S, Ovrehus KA, Auscher S, Lambrechtsen J, Hosbond SE, Alan DH, Urbonaviciene G, Becker SW, Fredgart MH, Hasific S, Folkestad L, Gerke O, Rasmussen LM, Moller JE, Mickley H, Dahl JS
May 2022
aortic valve calcification, aortic valve stenosis, coronary artery calcification, coronary artery disease, matrix Gla protein, randomized controlled trial, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on dp-ucMGP, PIVKAII, inflammatory markers, and body composition in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized clinical trial.
Karamzad N, Faraji E, Adeli S, Sullman MJM, Pourghassem Gargari B
Apr 2022
menaquinone-7, type 2 diabetes, vitamin K2
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation Using Liposomes, Cyclodextrins, or Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Nowak JK, Sobkowiak P, Drzymala-Czyz S, Krzyzanowska-Jankowska P, Sapiejka E, Skorupa W, Pogorzelski A, Nowicka A, Wojsyk-Banaszak I, Kurek S, Zielinska-Psuja B, Lisowska A, Walkowiak J
Dec 2021
cholecalciferol, cyclodextrin, cystic fibrosis, liposome, menaquinone, retinol, tocopherol, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K
Bone Health
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) increases plasma adiponectin but does not affect insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Ronn SH, Harslof T, Pedersen SB, Langdahl BL
Nov 2021
insulin sensitivity, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Glycemic control improvement in individuals with type 2 diabetes with vitamin K(2) supplementation: a randomized controlled trial.
Rahimi Sakak F, Moslehi N, Niroomand M, Mirmiran P
Aug 2021
Diabetes mellitus, Glucose hemostasis, Insulin sensitivity, Randomized clinical trial, Vitamin K2
Effects of vitamin K2 supplementation on atherogenic status of individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
Rahimi Sakak F, Moslehi N, Abdi H, Mirmiran P
May 2021
Atherogenic index, Atherogenic status, Cardiovascular diseases, Menaquinone-7, Type 2 diabetes, Vitamin K
Effect of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective cohort study.
Solmaz I, Ozdemir MA, Unal E, Abdurrezzak U, Muhtaroglu S, Karakukcu M
Apr 2021
acute lymphoblastic leukemia, bone metabolism, menaquinone, osetocalcin, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin K2 Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Zhang Y, Liu Z, Duan L, Ji Y, Yang S, Zhang Y, Li H, Wang Y, Wang P, Chen J, Li Y
May 2020
Bone mineral density, Menaquinone-7, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal women, Vitamin K2
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on vascular calcification in patients with diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Zwakenberg SR, de Jong PA, Bartstra JW, van Asperen R, Westerink J, de Valk H, Slart RHJA, Luurtsema G, Wolterink JM, de Borst GJ, van Herwaarden JA, van de Ree MA, Schurgers LJ, van der Schouw YT, Beulens JWJ
Oct 2019
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K
Cardiovascular Health
Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis and the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Calcification Using (18)F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance: The BASIK2 Rationale and Trial Design.
Peeters FECM, van Mourik MJW, Meex SJR, Bucerius J, Schalla SM, Gerretsen SC, Mihl C, Dweck MR, Schurgers LJ, Wildberger JE, Crijns HJGM, Kietselaer BLJH
Mar 2018
18F-NaF, PET/MR, bicuspid aortic valve, calcific aortic valve stenosis, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Vitamin K-induced effects on body fat and weight: results from a 3-year vitamin K2 intervention study.
Knapen MHJ, Jardon KM, Vermeer C
Jan 2018
body fat, body weight, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.
Karl JP, Meydani M, Barnett JB, Vanegas SM, Barger K, Fu X, Goldin B, Kane A, Rasmussen H, Vangay P, Knights D, Jonnalagadda SS, Saltzman E, Roberts SB, Meydani SN, Booth SL
Oct 2017
menaquinones, metabolomics, microbiome, phylloquinone, vitamin K, whole grain
Vitamin K2 supplementation and arterial stiffness among renal transplant recipients-a single-arm, single-center clinical trial.
Mansour AG, Hariri E, Daaboul Y, Korjian S, El Alam A, Protogerou AD, Kilany H, Karam A, Stephan A, Bahous SA
Sep 2017
Menaquinone, pulse wave velocity
Renal Health
High Dephosphorylated-Uncarboxylated MGP in Hemodialysis patients: risk factors and response to vitamin K(2), A pre-post intervention clinical trial.
Aoun M, Makki M, Azar H, Matta H, Chelala DN
Jun 2017
Dephosphorylated Uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, Hemodialysis, Menaquinone-7, Pre-post intervention clinical trial, Vascular calcifications, Vitamin K2
Renal Health
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) prevents age-related deterioration of trabecular bone microarchitecture at the tibia in postmenopausal women.
Ronn SH, Harslof T, Pedersen SB, Langdahl BL
Dec 2016
bone mineral density, calcium, menaquinone-7, osteopenia, postmenopausal women, vitamin D, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Steady-state vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) plasma concentrations after intake of dairy products and soft gel capsules.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Teunissen KJ, Van't Hoofd CM, Zwijsen RM, van den Heuvel EG, Vermeer C
Jul 2016
menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K intake, vitamin K2, vitamin absorption
Clinical Trials
Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial).
Vossen LM, Schurgers LJ, van Varik BJ, Kietselaer BL, Vermeer C, Meeder JG, Rahel BM, van Cauteren YJ, Hoffland GA, Rennenberg RJ, Reesink KD, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA
Oct 2015
coronary artery calcification, matrix gla protein, menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Menaquinone-7 as a novel pharmacological therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A clinical study.
Abdel-Rahman MS, Alkady EA, Ahmed S
Aug 2015
DAS28-ESR, Matrix metalloproteinase., Menaquinone-7, Rheumatoid arthritis, ucOC
Clinical Trials
Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women. A double-blind randomised clinical trial.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Drummen NE, Bekers O, Hoeks AP, Vermeer C
May 2015
Arterial stiffness, Stiffness Index beta, carotid intima-media thickness, menaquinone-7, pulse wave velocity
Cardiovascular Health
Low-Dose Daily Intake of Vitamin K(2) (Menaquinone-7) Improves Osteocalcin gamma-Carboxylation: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trials.
Inaba N, Sato T, Yamashita T
Jan 2015
bone health, menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Vitamin K2 supplementation in haemodialysis patients: a randomized dose-finding study.
Caluwe R, Vandecasteele S, Van Vlem B, Vermeer C, De Vriese AS
Jul 2014
haemodialysis, menaquinone, vascular calcification
Bone Health
Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.
Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, Estruch R, Ros E, Fito M, Aros F, Gomez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Basora J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pinto X, Munoz MA, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Fernandez-Ballart J, Bullo M
May 2014
menaquinone-7, mortality risk, vitamin K2
Low-dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation for 12 months improves bone metabolism and prevents forearm bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Koitaya N, Sekiguchi M, Tousen Y, Nishide Y, Morita A, Yamauchi J, Gando Y, Miyachi M, Aoki M, Komatsu M, Watanabe F, Morishita K, Ishimi Y
Mar 2014
bone loss, bone metabolism, bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Vitamin K status in healthy volunteers
Theuwissen E, Magdeleyns EJ, Braam LA, Teunissen KJ, Knapen MH, Binnekamp IA, van Summeren MJ, Vermeer C
Feb 2014
menaquinone-7, vitamin K intake, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
The efficacy of vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination on thalassemic osteopathy.
Ozdemir MA, Yilmaz K, Abdulrezzak U, Muhtaroglu S, Patiroglu T, Karakukcu M, Unal E
Nov 2013
bone mineral density, menaquinone-7, thalassemic osteopathy, vitamin D, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women.
Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, Vermeer C, Theuwissen E
Sep 2013
bone loss, bone mineral density, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on circulating species of matrix Gla protein.
Dalmeijer GW, van der Schouw YT, Magdeleyns E, Ahmed N, Vermeer C, Beulens JW
Dec 2012
carboxylation of MGP, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women.
Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K
Nov 2012
menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2, vitamin bioavailability
Clinical Trials
Low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation improved extra-hepatic vitamin K status, but had no effect on thrombin generation in healthy subjects.
Theuwissen E, Cranenburg EC, Knapen MH, Magdeleyns EJ, Teunissen KJ, Schurgers LJ, Smit E, Vermeer C
Nov 2012
carboxylation, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.
Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Shearer MJ, Newman P, Theuwissen E, Vermeer C
Sep 2012
body fat, body weight, menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients: a randomized trial.
Westenfeld R, Krueger T, Schlieper G, Cranenburg EC, Magdeleyns EJ, Heidenreich S, Holzmann S, Vermeer C, Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M, Floege J, Schurgers LJ
Feb 2012
menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.
Bruge F, Bacchetti T, Principi F, Littarru GP, Tiano L
Oct 2011
menaquinone-7, olive oil, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Possible site-specific effect of an intervention combining nutrition and lifestyle counselling with consumption of fortified dairy products on bone mass: the Postmenopausal Health Study II.
Moschonis G, Kanellakis S, Papaioannou N, Schaafsma A, Manios Y
Jul 2011
bone mineral density, calcium, menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin D3, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Emaus N, Gjesdal CG, Almas B, Christensen M, Grimsgaard AS, Berntsen GK, Salomonsen L, Fonnebo V
Oct 2010
bone loss, early menopausal women, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children.
van Summeren MJ, Braam LA, Lilien MR, Schurgers LJ, Kuis W, Vermeer C
Oct 2009
bone health, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women.
Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, Engelke J, Vallarta-Ast N, Gemar D, Checovich M, Chappell R, Suttie J
Jun 2009
bone health, menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Effect of low dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation on bio-indices in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Koitaya N, Ezaki J, Nishimuta M, Yamauchi J, Hashizume E, Morishita K, Miyachi M, Sasaki S, Ishimi Y
Feb 2009
bone metabolism, menaquinone-4, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Excretion of the urinary 5C- and 7C-aglycone metabolites of vitamin K by young adults responds to changes in dietary phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone intakes.
Harrington DJ, Booth SL, Card DJ, Shearer MJ
Jul 2007
phylloquinone, urinary excretion of vitamin K metabolites, vitamin K1
Bone Health
Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7.
Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyak K, Knapen MH, Vik H, Vermeer C
Apr 2007
menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, vitamin absorption
Treatment of natto, a fermented soybean preparation, to prevent excessive plasma vitamin K concentrations in patients taking warfarin.
Homma K, Wakana N, Suzuki Y, Nukui M, Daimatsu T, Tanaka E, Tanaka K, Koga Y, Nakajima Y, Nakazawa H
Oct 2006
menaquinone-7, natto, plasma concentration of vitamin K, vitamin K2, warfarin
Vitamin K(2) (menaquinone 4) reduces serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level as early as 2 weeks in elderly women with established osteoporosis.
Miki T, Nakatsuka K, Naka H, Kitatani K, Saito S, Masaki H, Tomiyoshi Y, Morii H, Nishizawa Y
Jan 2003
bone metabolism, calcium, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Menaquinone-4 in breast milk is derived from dietary phylloquinone.
Thijssen HH, Drittij MJ, Vermeer C, Schoffelen E
Mar 2002
menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K administration to elderly patients with osteoporosis induces no hemostatic activation, even in those with suspected vitamin K deficiency.
Asakura H, Myou S, Ontachi Y, Mizutani T, Kato M, Saito M, Morishita E, Yamazaki M, Nakao S
Dec 2001
hemostatic balance, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol.
Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, Kawai S, Furukawa S
Feb 2001
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis.
Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M
Mar 2000
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Intake of fermented soybean (natto) increases circulating vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) and gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in normal individuals.
Tsukamoto Y, Ichise H, Kakuda H, Yamaguchi M
Jan 2000
menaquinone-7, natto, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K
Sep 1998
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Anticoagulant effects of warfarin and kinetics of K vitamins in blood and feces.
Nakamura K, Toyohira H, Kariyazono H, Ishibashi M, Saigenji H, Shimokawa S, Taira A
Jan 1994
menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, warfarin
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K concentrations in the plasma and liver of surgical patients.
Usui Y, Tanimura H, Nishimura N, Kobayashi N, Okanoue T, Ozawa K
May 1990
menaquinone, phylloquinone, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Dietary deficiency of phylloquinone and reduced serum levels in febrile neutropenic cancer patients.
Conly J, Suttie J, Reid E, Loftson J, Ramotar K, Louie T
Jul 1989
menaquinone, phylloquinone, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Menaquinone (vitamin K2) therapy for bronchial asthma. II. Clinical effect of menaquinone on bronchial asthma.
Kimur I, Tanizaki Y, Sato S, Saito K, Takahashi K
Apr 1975
bronchial asthma, menaquinone, vitamin K2
Bronchial Asthma
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