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There are 55 published clinical (human) studies on K2 according to a Pubmed search. Best to our knowledge, all of them are sponsored and published by academia bodies, not private companies. Some of our competitors provided technical assistance and free placebo and active samples in some of these studies (Collaborators). Please see the list of clinical trials with their sponsors and collaborators from this reliable source.

The results of these studies are copyrighted, however quoting small sections that are directly relevant to something one is writing about is acceptable under Fair Use, as long as one provides an appropriate citation. Summarizing and quoting from a medical article in a news article (Commentary, Criticism, “transformative”purpose) is considered a fair use according to this source.

All human clinical studies were designed and performed on Menaquinone-7 chemical compound which does not differ in terms of bioavailability or safety profile regardless if obtained through organic synthesis or biochemistry (industrial fermentation).
Vitamin K2 offered in the market differs only in terms of purity offered and presentation oil, powder, microcapsule).

We encourage all our clients to produce educational content based on the available study results and fair use policy. In case of advertising of a specific brand, use of third-party study results is prohibited.

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PubMed Link
Publication date
Menaquinone (vitamin K2) therapy for bronchial asthma. II. Clinical effect of menaquinone on bronchial asthma.
Kimur I, Tanizaki Y, Sato S, Saito K, Takahashi K
1975 Apr
bronchial asthma, menaquinone, vitamin K2
Bronchial Asthma
Dietary deficiency of phylloquinone and reduced serum levels in febrile neutropenic cancer patients.
Conly J, Suttie J, Reid E, Loftson J, Ramotar K, Louie T
1989 Jul
menaquinone, phylloquinone, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K concentrations in the plasma and liver of surgical patients.
Usui Y, Tanimura H, Nishimura N, Kobayashi N, Okanoue T, Ozawa K
1990 May
menaquinone, phylloquinone, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Anticoagulant effects of warfarin and kinetics of K vitamins in blood and feces.
Nakamura K, Toyohira H, Kariyazono H, Ishibashi M, Saigenji H, Shimokawa S, Taira A
menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, warfarin
Vitamin K Deficiency
Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K
1998 Sep
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Intake of fermented soybean (natto) increases circulating vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) and gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration in normal individuals.
Tsukamoto Y, Ichise H, Kakuda H, Yamaguchi M
menaquinone-7, natto, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis.
Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M
2000 Mar
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Vitamin K administration to elderly patients with osteoporosis induces no hemostatic activation, even in those with suspected vitamin K deficiency.
Asakura H, Myou S, Ontachi Y, Mizutani T, Kato M, Saito M, Morishita E, Yamazaki M, Nakao S
2001 Dec
hemostatic balance, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol.
Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, Kawai S, Furukawa S
2001 Feb
bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Menaquinone-4 in breast milk is derived from dietary phylloquinone.
Thijssen HH, Drittij MJ, Vermeer C, Schoffelen E
2002 Mar
menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K(2) (menaquinone 4) reduces serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin level as early as 2 weeks in elderly women with established osteoporosis.
Miki T, Nakatsuka K, Naka H, Kitatani K, Saito S, Masaki H, Tomiyoshi Y, Morii H, Nishizawa Y
bone metabolism, calcium, menaquinone-4, osteoporosis, vitamin K2
Treatment of natto, a fermented soybean preparation, to prevent excessive plasma vitamin K concentrations in patients taking warfarin.
Homma K, Wakana N, Suzuki Y, Nukui M, Daimatsu T, Tanaka E, Tanaka K, Koga Y, Nakajima Y, Nakazawa H
2006 Oct
menaquinone-7, natto, plasma concentration of vitamin K, vitamin K2, warfarin
Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7.
Schurgers LJ, Teunissen KJ, Hamulyak K, Knapen MH, Vik H, Vermeer C
2007 Apr
menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, vitamin K1, vitamin K2, vitamin absorption
Excretion of the urinary 5C- and 7C-aglycone metabolites of vitamin K by young adults responds to changes in dietary phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone intakes.
Harrington DJ, Booth SL, Card DJ, Shearer MJ
2007 Jul
phylloquinone, urinary excretion of vitamin K metabolites, vitamin K1
Bone Health
Effect of low dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation on bio-indices in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Koitaya N, Ezaki J, Nishimuta M, Yamauchi J, Hashizume E, Morishita K, Miyachi M, Sasaki S, Ishimi Y
2009 Feb
bone metabolism, menaquinone-4, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density, or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women.
Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, Engelke J, Vallarta-Ast N, Gemar D, Checovich M, Chappell R, Suttie J
2009 Jun
bone health, menaquinone-4, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Bone Health
The effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation on osteocalcin carboxylation in healthy prepubertal children.
van Summeren MJ, Braam LA, Lilien MR, Schurgers LJ, Kuis W, Vermeer C
2009 Oct
bone health, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Emaus N, Gjesdal CG, Almas B, Christensen M, Grimsgaard AS, Berntsen GK, Salomonsen L, Fonnebo V
2010 Oct
bone loss, early menopausal women, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Possible site-specific effect of an intervention combining nutrition and lifestyle counselling with consumption of fortified dairy products on bone mass: the Postmenopausal Health Study II.
Moschonis G, Kanellakis S, Papaioannou N, Schaafsma A, Manios Y
2011 Jul
bone mineral density, calcium, menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin D3, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.
Bruge F, Bacchetti T, Principi F, Littarru GP, Tiano L
2011 Oct
menaquinone-7, olive oil, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on circulating species of matrix Gla protein.
Dalmeijer GW, van der Schouw YT, Magdeleyns E, Ahmed N, Vermeer C, Beulens JW
2012 Dec
carboxylation of MGP, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Effect of vitamin K2 supplementation on functional vitamin K deficiency in hemodialysis patients: a randomized trial.
Westenfeld R, Krueger T, Schlieper G, Cranenburg EC, Magdeleyns EJ, Heidenreich S, Holzmann S, Vermeer C, Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M, Floege J, Schurgers LJ
2012 Feb
menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K deficiency, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 bioavailability in healthy women.
Sato T, Schurgers LJ, Uenishi K
2012 Nov
menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2, vitamin bioavailability
Clinical Trials
Low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation improved extra-hepatic vitamin K status, but had no effect on thrombin generation in healthy subjects.
Theuwissen E, Cranenburg EC, Knapen MH, Magdeleyns EJ, Teunissen KJ, Schurgers LJ, Smit E, Vermeer C
2012 Nov
carboxylation, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.
Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Shearer MJ, Newman P, Theuwissen E, Vermeer C
2012 Sep
body fat, body weight, menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
The efficacy of vitamin K2 and calcitriol combination on thalassemic osteopathy.
Ozdemir MA, Yilmaz K, Abdulrezzak U, Muhtaroglu S, Patiroglu T, Karakukcu M, Unal E
2013 Nov
bone mineral density, menaquinone-7, thalassemic osteopathy, vitamin D, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women.
Knapen MH, Drummen NE, Smit E, Vermeer C, Theuwissen E
2013 Sep
bone loss, bone mineral density, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Vitamin K status in healthy volunteers
Theuwissen E, Magdeleyns EJ, Braam LA, Teunissen KJ, Knapen MH, Binnekamp IA, van Summeren MJ, Vermeer C
2014 Feb
menaquinone-7, vitamin K intake, vitamin K2
Vitamin K Deficiency
Vitamin K2 supplementation in haemodialysis patients: a randomized dose-finding study.
Caluwe R, Vandecasteele S, Van Vlem B, Vermeer C, De Vriese AS
2014 Jul
haemodialysis, menaquinone, vascular calcification
Bone Health
Low-dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation for 12 months improves bone metabolism and prevents forearm bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Koitaya N, Sekiguchi M, Tousen Y, Nishide Y, Morita A, Yamauchi J, Gando Y, Miyachi M, Aoki M, Komatsu M, Watanabe F, Morishita K, Ishimi Y
2014 Mar
bone loss, bone metabolism, bone mineral density, menaquinone-4, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.
Juanola-Falgarona M, Salas-Salvado J, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, Estruch R, Ros E, Fito M, Aros F, Gomez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Basora J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pinto X, Munoz MA, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Fernandez-Ballart J, Bullo M
2014 May
menaquinone-7, mortality risk, vitamin K2
Low-Dose Daily Intake of Vitamin K(2) (Menaquinone-7) Improves Osteocalcin gamma-Carboxylation: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trials.
Inaba N, Sato T, Yamashita T
bone health, menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, phylloquinone, postmenopausal women, vitamin K1, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
Menaquinone-7 as a novel pharmacological therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A clinical study.
Abdel-Rahman MS, Alkady EA, Ahmed S
2015 Aug
DAS28-ESR, Matrix metalloproteinase., Menaquinone-7, Rheumatoid arthritis, ucOC
Clinical Trials
Menaquinone-7 supplementation improves arterial stiffness in healthy postmenopausal women. A double-blind randomised clinical trial.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Drummen NE, Bekers O, Hoeks AP, Vermeer C
2015 May
Arterial stiffness, Stiffness Index beta, carotid intima-media thickness, menaquinone-7, pulse wave velocity
Cardiovascular Health
Menaquinone-7 Supplementation to Reduce Vascular Calcification in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Rationale and Study Protocol (VitaK-CAC Trial).
Vossen LM, Schurgers LJ, van Varik BJ, Kietselaer BL, Vermeer C, Meeder JG, Rahel BM, van Cauteren YJ, Hoffland GA, Rennenberg RJ, Reesink KD, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA
2015 Oct
coronary artery calcification, matrix gla protein, menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) prevents age-related deterioration of trabecular bone microarchitecture at the tibia in postmenopausal women.
Ronn SH, Harslof T, Pedersen SB, Langdahl BL
2016 Dec
bone mineral density, calcium, menaquinone-7, osteopenia, postmenopausal women, vitamin D, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Steady-state vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) plasma concentrations after intake of dairy products and soft gel capsules.
Knapen MH, Braam LA, Teunissen KJ, Van't Hoofd CM, Zwijsen RM, van den Heuvel EG, Vermeer C
2016 Jul
menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K intake, vitamin K2, vitamin absorption
Clinical Trials
High Dephosphorylated-Uncarboxylated MGP in Hemodialysis patients: risk factors and response to vitamin K(2), A pre-post intervention clinical trial.
Aoun M, Makki M, Azar H, Matta H, Chelala DN
2017 Jun
Dephosphorylated Uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein, Hemodialysis, Menaquinone-7, Pre-post intervention clinical trial, Vascular calcifications, Vitamin K2
Renal Health
Fecal concentrations of bacterially derived vitamin K forms are associated with gut microbiota composition but not plasma or fecal cytokine concentrations in healthy adults.
Karl JP, Meydani M, Barnett JB, Vanegas SM, Barger K, Fu X, Goldin B, Kane A, Rasmussen H, Vangay P, Knights D, Jonnalagadda SS, Saltzman E, Roberts SB, Meydani SN, Booth SL
2017 Oct
menaquinones, metabolomics, microbiome, phylloquinone, vitamin K, whole grain
Vitamin K2 supplementation and arterial stiffness among renal transplant recipients-a single-arm, single-center clinical trial.
Mansour AG, Hariri E, Daaboul Y, Korjian S, El Alam A, Protogerou AD, Kilany H, Karam A, Stephan A, Bahous SA
2017 Sep
Menaquinone, pulse wave velocity
Renal Health
Vitamin K-induced effects on body fat and weight: results from a 3-year vitamin K2 intervention study.
Knapen MHJ, Jardon KM, Vermeer C
2018 Jan
body fat, body weight, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis and the Effect of Vitamin K2 on Calcification Using (18)F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance: The BASIK2 Rationale and Trial Design.
Peeters FECM, van Mourik MJW, Meex SJR, Bucerius J, Schalla SM, Gerretsen SC, Mihl C, Dweck MR, Schurgers LJ, Wildberger JE, Crijns HJGM, Kietselaer BLJH
2018 Mar
18F-NaF, PET/MR, bicuspid aortic valve, calcific aortic valve stenosis, menaquinone-7, vitamin K2
Clinical Trials
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on vascular calcification in patients with diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Zwakenberg SR, de Jong PA, Bartstra JW, van Asperen R, Westerink J, de Valk H, Slart RHJA, Luurtsema G, Wolterink JM, de Borst GJ, van Herwaarden JA, van de Ree MA, Schurgers LJ, van der Schouw YT, Beulens JWJ
2019 Oct
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, menaquinone-7, vascular calcification, vitamin K
Cardiovascular Health
Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin K2 Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Zhang Y, Liu Z, Duan L, Ji Y, Yang S, Zhang Y, Li H, Wang Y, Wang P, Chen J, Li Y
2020 May
Bone mineral density, Menaquinone-7, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal women, Vitamin K2
Effect of vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective cohort study.
Solmaz I, Ozdemir MA, Unal E, Abdurrezzak U, Muhtaroglu S, Karakukcu M
2021 Apr
acute lymphoblastic leukemia, bone metabolism, menaquinone, osetocalcin, vitamin K2
Bone Health
Glycemic control improvement in individuals with type 2 diabetes with vitamin K(2) supplementation: a randomized controlled trial.
Rahimi Sakak F, Moslehi N, Niroomand M, Mirmiran P
2021 Aug
Diabetes mellitus, Glucose hemostasis, Insulin sensitivity, Randomized clinical trial, Vitamin K2
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation Using Liposomes, Cyclodextrins, or Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Nowak JK, Sobkowiak P, Drzymala-Czyz S, Krzyzanowska-Jankowska P, Sapiejka E, Skorupa W, Pogorzelski A, Nowicka A, Wojsyk-Banaszak I, Kurek S, Zielinska-Psuja B, Lisowska A, Walkowiak J
2021 Dec
cholecalciferol, cyclodextrin, cystic fibrosis, liposome, menaquinone, retinol, tocopherol, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K
Bone Health
Effects of vitamin K2 supplementation on atherogenic status of individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
Rahimi Sakak F, Moslehi N, Abdi H, Mirmiran P
2021 May
Atherogenic index, Atherogenic status, Cardiovascular diseases, Menaquinone-7, Type 2 diabetes, Vitamin K
Vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) increases plasma adiponectin but does not affect insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.
Ronn SH, Harslof T, Pedersen SB, Langdahl BL
2021 Nov
insulin sensitivity, menaquinone-7, postmenopausal women, vitamin K2
Postmenopausal Women
The effect of menaquinone-7 supplementation on dp-ucMGP, PIVKAII, inflammatory markers, and body composition in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized clinical trial.
Karamzad N, Faraji E, Adeli S, Sullman MJM, Pourghassem Gargari B
2022 Apr
menaquinone-7, type 2 diabetes, vitamin K2
Effect of vitamin K2 administration on depression status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.
Tarkesh F, Namavar Jahromi B, Hejazi N, Hoseini G
2022 Jul
Depression, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Vitamin K2
Vitamin K2 and D in Patients With Aortic Valve Calcification: A Randomized Double-Blinded Clinical Trial.
Diederichsen ACP, Lindholt JS, Moller S, Ovrehus KA, Auscher S, Lambrechtsen J, Hosbond SE, Alan DH, Urbonaviciene G, Becker SW, Fredgart MH, Hasific S, Folkestad L, Gerke O, Rasmussen LM, Moller JE, Mickley H, Dahl JS
2022 May
aortic valve calcification, aortic valve stenosis, coronary artery calcification, coronary artery disease, matrix Gla protein, randomized controlled trial, vitamin K2
Cardiovascular Health
Effect of vitamin K supplementation on serum calcification propensity and arterial stiffness in vitamin K-deficient kidney transplant recipients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Eelderink C, Kremer D, Riphagen IJ, Knobbe TJ, Schurgers LJ, Pasch A, Mulder DJ, Corpeleijn E, Navis G, Bakker SJL, de Borst MH, Te Velde-Keyzer CA
2023 Apr
arterial stiffness, calcification propensity, cardiovascular disease, clinical research/practice, kidney transplantation/nephrology, nutrition, vascular biology, vascular health, vitamin K
Renal Health
Effect of Menaquinone-7 Supplementation on Arterial Stiffness in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.
Naiyarakseree N, Phannajit J, Naiyarakseree W, Mahatanan N, Asavapujanamanee P, Lekhyananda S, Vanichakarn S, Avihingsanon Y, Praditpornsilpa K, Eiam-Ong S, Susantitaphong P
2023 May
arterial stiffness, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, chronic hemodialysis, menaquinone-7
Clinical Trials
Vitamin K supplementation and bone mineral density in dialysis: results of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled RenaKvit trial.
Levy-Schousboe K, Marckmann P, Frimodt-Moller M, Peters CD, Kjaergaard KD, Jensen JD, Strandhave C, Sandstrom H, Hitz MF, Langdahl B, Vestergaard P, Brasen CL, Schmedes A, Madsen JS, Jorgensen NR, Frokjaer JB, Frandsen NE, Petersen I, Hansen D
2023 Sep
bone mineral density, chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease, menaquinone-7, mineral and bone disorder
Cardiovascular Health
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